the research process continued.

searching databases.

boolean operations

in the context of research, boolean operations are combinations of both keywords and the boolean operators or, and, and not, to broaden or narrow a topic.

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boolean logic as a concept can be found in mathematics, electronic engineering, and computer science.

click the button to see an example of each boolean operation using chess pieces.

important things to know about databases.

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finding what you need at your first try is very rare. expect to search repeatedly, using different keyword combinations each time.

web search strategies.

many people are increasingly using google and the internet to do college-level research.

in the absence of a gatekeeper, here are some strategies to make google searches more effective (plus other stuff that has nothing to do with college research).

evaluating information.

C urrency
R eliability
A uthority
P urpose

W here
I nformation
T echnologies
H ave allowed for

C reative
A dvertising as well as many points of
V iew from
E urope and
A sia and Africa and other places where English is not
T aught in
S chools
portrait theodore painted
many reputable sources of information use pop-up ads as a legitimate source of revenue, and now we have access to content from creators who speak non-alphabetic languages. use crap as a guideline rather than a checklist.

search engine optimization.

predicting future search behavior by analyzing past search behavior.

what you like is not the same as what you need.

The only way to mitigate any possible effects of search engine optimization, etc. is by being more conscious of what is online and how it's found.

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search engines and social media make money by keeping their users in front of their screen for as long as possible. content that increasingly appeals to emotion keeps people on screen, not necessarily good quality content.

filter bubble

the ability to prioritize agreeable and block disagreeable online content and relationships.

positive reinforcement: movie reviews.

think of it as a buffet.

1960's, before cable

many people consumed the same media.

consumption schedule dictated by media.


500 hours of video are uploaded to youtube every minute (2019 numbers).

from window
before the media explosion, people's experience was more homogeneous. with fewer choices, more people shared similar media experiences.

nowadays, people are able to curate their media experience, filtering in what is preferred or agreeable, and keeping away that what is not convenient, to the point of alienation and disconnection from the shared experience.

annotated bibliographies.

an easy way to think about them

the bibliography part of annotated bibliography would answer the who, what, where, when, and how of the sources you cite.

the annotated part, answers the question why.